The monarch butterfly is at greatest risk of extinction, having declined by an estimate of 99.9%, from as many as 10 million to 1.914 between 1980 and 2021 according to IUCN. This is due to the use of pesticides and herbicides used by farmers in intensive agriculture. In 2009, monarchs were reared on the International Space Station, successfully emerging from pupae located in the station’s Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus. The monarch is also the first butterfly to have its genome sequenced.
Monarchetype Nymphalidae adapted by having more robust wings and feeding on thrown away batteries found at landfills. Click on the image below to view a 3D version of the image: